Mīdān
Mīdān
midan.jpg
motto
map
Capital Rhaje
Largest City Rhaje
Ruling House ?
Demonym Midanian
Formation ?
Area ?
Population ?
Common Languages Infernal

Mīdān (MEE-dahn), or the Midanian Empire was a human/tiefling state that lasted from about 2250 - 1600 PI. At the height of its power, it spanned southern Vatharond and parts of Canstice. The empire is notable for the first breeding of Tieflings sometime during the Second Midan Dynasty. Even after the collapse of the empire and the subsequent migration of the population, most modern tieflings still practice many of the traditions set 3,000 years ago.

History


Six Tribes of Man

Thus Deioces collected the Medes into a nation, and ruled over them alone. Now these are the tribes of which they consist: the Busae, the Paretaceni, the Struchates, the Arizanti, the Budii, and the Magi.

The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangular area between Rhagae, Aspadana and Ecbatana.[7] In present-day Iran,[8] that is the area between Tehran, Isfahan and Hamadan, respectively. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhagae,[9] modern Tehran.[10] They were of a sacred caste which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes.[11] The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan,[7][12][13] the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan (Isfahan Province),[7] and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, near modern Hamadan.[7] The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle.[14]

Including the last remnants of the eastern Shi'imti Empire

Alliance in order to fight lamia and centaurs?

Oni and Rakshasa

c2,000 PI

Trade and diplomacy between the oni and the humans start off well, but soon the Oni begin to enslave the humans. The humans turn to Rakshasa for assistance.

The fiends gave their humans narcotics, alcohol, sports and music. The image of the rakshasas grew holy in Midan society and likewise all cats were raised to iconism.

Rhaje grew into the largest city the world had ever seen and a marvelously terrible culture spread around it.

Tieflings are born

After a period of constant warfare, Midas’ dominance of Morgenia was cemented. The Rajahs turned to breeding experimentation.

It was during this time that the nobility of Midas was born, the tieflings. Also the different breeds of rakshasa.

Oni Wars

Tiefling Wars

Collapse

Settlements


Government and economy


When Midas grew into an empire, it was divided into smaller parts, called provinces. Each of these were named after their main cities. They all had their own governor who had to make sure everyone paid their taxes. Governors also had to call up soldiers to war and supply workers when a temple was built. He was also responsible for enforcing the laws. In this way, it was easier to keep control of a large empire.

Social Order


Midan society was divided into three classes. The social order was somewhat mutable. Sersem children prior to adolescence were able to join the Ogrenim and become schooled if they were deemed worthy. Likewise, unproductive members of the Ogrenim could fall into the Sersem.

Ogrenim

The Ogrenim nobility was at the top and included politicians, clergy, teachers and practitioners of high art such as musicians, actors and poets.

Sersem

The Sersem were the commonfolk craftsmen. farmers, hunters and practitioners of low art such as painters and sculptors.

Kole

At the bottom were the Kole, or slaves who worked as laborers and city cleaners. Female slaves, far more prized than their male counterparts, were usually kept for more household chores such as cooking and nursing.

Music


Music was highly prized. Sacred musicians known as the Chalgici behaved much like modern bards and were respected almost without peer.



was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers (2.1 million square miles).[12][13] It is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for its multicultural policy, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.[17]

By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the south-western portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis, which came to be their heartland.[18] From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes, Lydia, and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, establishing the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander the Great, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great,[19] conquered most of the empire by 330 BC.[20] Upon Alexander's death, most of the empire's former territory fell under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time. The Iranian elites of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire.[18]

The Achaemenid Empire is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The historical mark of the empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well. For example, many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange,[21] some being employed by or allied to the Persian kings. The impact of Cyrus's edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, and the empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China. The empire also set the tone for the politics, heritage and history of Iran (also known as Persia).[22]

The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here. … : the Pasargadae, Maraphii, and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished; they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder—the Dai, Mardi, Dropici, Sagarti, being nomadic.
— Herodotus, Histories 1.101 & 125

Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.

The Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The Persians were an Iranian people who arrived in what is today Iran c. 1000 BC and settled a region including north-western Iran, the Zagros Mountains and Persis alongside the native Elamites.[27] For a number of centuries they fell under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC), based in northern Mesopotamia.[citation needed] The Persians were originally nomadic pastoralists in the western Iranian Plateau. The Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as the Medes, another group of Iranian peoples, established a short-lived empire and played a major role in the overthrow of the Assyrians.[28]

The Achaemenids were initially rulers of the Elamite city of Anshan near the modern city of Marvdasht;[29] the title "King of Anshan" was an adaptation of the earlier Elamite title "King of Susa and Anshan".[30] There are conflicting accounts of the identities of the earliest Kings of Anshan. According to the Cyrus Cylinder (the oldest extant genealogy of the Achaemenids) the kings of Anshan were Teispes, Cyrus I, Cambyses I and Cyrus II, also known as Cyrus the Great, who created the empire[29] (the later Behistun Inscription, written by Darius the Great, claims that Teispes was the son of Achaemenes and that Darius is also descended from Teispes through a different line, but no earlier texts mention Achaemenes[31]). In Herodotus' Histories, he writes that Cyrus the Great was the son of Cambyses I and Mandane of Media, the daughter of Astyages, the king of the Median Empire.[32]

Cyrus revolted against the Median Empire in 553 BC, and in 550 BC succeeded in defeating the Medes, capturing Astyages and taking the Median capital city of Ecbatana.[33][34][35] Once in control of Ecbatana, Cyrus styled himself as the successor to Astyages and assumed control of the entire empire.[36] By inheriting Astyages' empire, he also inherited the territorial conflicts the Medes had had with both Lydia and the Neo-Babylonian Empire.[37]

King Croesus of Lydia sought to take advantage of the new international situation by advancing into what had previously been Median territory in Asia Minor.[38][39] Cyrus led a counterattack which not only fought off Croesus' armies, but also led to the capture of Sardis and the fall of the Lydian Kingdom in 546 BC.[40][41][d] Cyrus placed Pactyes in charge of collecting tribute in Lydia and left, but once Cyrus had left Pactyes instigated a rebellion against Cyrus.[41][42][43] Cyrus sent the Median general Mazares to deal with the rebellion, and Pactyes was captured. Mazares, and after his death Harpagus, set about reducing all the cities which had taken part in the rebellion. The subjugation of Lydia took about four years in total.[44]

When power in Ecbatana changed hands from the Medes to the Persians, many tributaries to the Median Empire believed their situation had changed and revolted against Cyrus.[45] This forced Cyrus to fight wars against Bactria and the nomadic Saka in Central Asia.[46] During these wars, Cyrus established several garrison towns in Central Asia, including the Cyropolis.[47]
Cyrus the Great is said in the Bible to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.

Nothing is known of Persian-Babylonian relations between 547 BC and 539 BC, but it is likely that there were hostilities between the two empires for several years leading up to the war of 540–539 BC and the Fall of Babylon.[48] In October 539 BC, Cyrus won a battle against the Babylonians at Opis, then took Sippar without a fight before finally capturing the city of Babylon on 12 October, where the Babylonian king Nabonidus was taken prisoner.[49][48][50] Upon taking control of the city, Cyrus depicted himself in propaganda as restoring the divine order which had been disrupted by Nabonidus, who had promoted the cult of Sin rather than Marduk,[51][52][53] and he also portrayed himself as restoring the heritage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by comparing himself to the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal.[54][55][53] The Hebrew Bible also unreservedly praises Cyrus for his actions in the conquest of Babylon, referring to him as Yahweh's anointed.[56][57] He is credited with freeing the people of Judah from their exile and with authorizing the reconstruction of much of Jerusalem, including the Second Temple.[56][58]
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire

In 530 BC, Cyrus died while on a military expedition against the Massagetae in Central Asia. He was succeeded by his eldest son Cambyses II, while his younger son Bardiya[e] received a large territory in Central Asia.[61][62] By 525 BC, Cambyses had successfully subjugated Phoenicia and Cyprus and was making preparations to invade Egypt with the newly created Persian navy.[63][64] The great Pharaoh Amasis II had died in 526 BC and had been succeeded by Psamtik III, resulting in the defection of key Egyptian allies to the Persians.[64] Psamtik positioned his army at Pelusium in the Nile Delta. He was soundly defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium before fleeing to Memphis, where the Persians defeated him and took him prisoner.[64][65]

Herodotus depicts Cambyses as openly antagonistic to the Egyptian people and their gods, cults, temples and priests, in particular stressing the murder of the sacred bull Apis.[66] He says that these actions led to a madness that caused him to kill his brother Bardiya (who Herodotus says was killed in secret),[67] his own sister-wife[68] and Croesus of Lydia.[69] He then concludes that Cambyses completely lost his mind,[70] and all later classical authors repeat the themes of Cambyses' impiety and madness. However, this is based on spurious information, as the epitaph of Apis from 524 BC shows that Cambyses participated in the funeral rites of Apis styling himself as pharaoh.[71]

Following the conquest of Egypt, the Libyans and the Greeks of Cyrene and Barca in Libya surrendered to Cambyses and sent tribute without a fight.[64][65] Cambyses then planned invasions of Carthage, the oasis of Ammon and Ethiopia.[72] Herodotus claims that the naval invasion of Carthage was cancelled because the Phoenicians, who made up a large part of Cambyses' fleet, refused to take up arms against their own people,[73] but modern historians doubt whether an invasion of Carthage was ever planned at all.[64] However, Cambyses dedicated his efforts to the other two campaigns, aiming to improve the Empire's strategic position in Africa by conquering the Kingdom of Meroë and taking strategic positions in the western oases. To this end, he established a garrison at Elephantine consisting mainly of Jewish soldiers, who remained stationed at Elephantine throughout Cambyses' reign.[64] The invasions of Ammon and Ethiopia themselves were failures. Herodotus claims that the invasion of Ethiopia was a failure due to the madness of Cambyses and the lack of supplies for his men,[74] but archaeological evidence suggests that the expedition was not a failure, and a fortress at the Second Cataract of the Nile, on the border between Egypt and Kush, remained in use throughout the Achaemenid period.[64][75]

The events surrounding Cambyses' death and Bardiya's succession are greatly debated as there are many conflicting accounts.[60] According to Herodotus, as Bardiya's assassination had been committed in secret, the majority of Persians still believed him to be alive. This allowed two Magi to rise up against Cambyses, with one of them sitting on the throne able to impersonate Bardiya because of their remarkable physical resemblance and shared name (Smerdis in Herodotus' accounts[e]).[76] Ctesias writes that when Cambyses had Bardiya killed he immediately put the magus Sphendadates in his place as satrap of Bactria due to a remarkable physical resemblance.[77] Two of Cambyses' confidants then conspired to usurp Cambyses and put Sphendadates on the throne under the guise of Bardiya.[78] According to the Behistun Inscription, written by the following king Darius the Great, a magus named Gaumata impersonated Bardiya and incited a revolution in Persia.[59] Whatever the exact circumstances of the revolt, Cambyses heard news of it in the summer of 522 BC and began to return from Egypt, but he was wounded in the thigh in Syria and died of gangrene, so Bardiya's impersonator became king.[79][f] The account of Darius is the earliest, and although the later historians all agree on the key details of the story, that a magus impersonated Bardiya and took the throne, this may have been a story created by Darius to justify his own usurpation.[81] Iranologist Pierre Briant hypothesises that Bardiya was not killed by Cambyses, but waited until his death in the summer of 522 BC to claim his legitimate right to the throne as he was then the only male descendant of the royal family. Briant says that although the hypothesis of a deception by Darius is generally accepted today, "nothing has been established with certainty at the present time, given the available evidence".[82]
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC

According to the Behistun Inscription, Gaumata ruled for seven months before being overthrown in 522 BC by Darius the Great (Darius I) (Old Persian Dāryavuš, "who holds firm the good", also known as Darayarahush or Darius the Great). The Magi, though persecuted, continued to exist, and a year following the death of the first pseudo-Smerdis (Gaumata), saw a second pseudo-Smerdis (named Vahyazdāta) attempt a coup. The coup, though initially successful, failed.[83]

Herodotus writes[84] that the native leadership debated the best form of government for the empire.

Ever since the Macedonian king Amyntas I surrendered his country to the Persians in about 512–511, Macedonians and Persians were strangers no more as well. Subjugation of Macedonia was part of Persian military operations initiated by Darius the Great (521–486) in 513—after immense preparations—a huge Achaemenid army invaded the Balkans and tried to defeat the European Scythians roaming to the north of the Danube river.[85] Darius' army subjugated several Thracian peoples, and virtually all other regions that touch the European part of the Black Sea, such as parts of nowadays Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, before it returned to Asia Minor.[85][86] Darius left in Europe one of his commanders named Megabazus whose task was to accomplish conquests in the Balkans.[85] The Persian troops subjugated gold-rich Thrace, the coastal Greek cities, as well as defeating and conquering the powerful Paeonians.[85][87][88] Finally, Megabazus sent envoys to Amyntas, demanding acceptance of Persian domination, which the Macedonians did. The Balkans provided many soldiers for the multi-ethnic Achaemenid army. Many of the Macedonian and Persian elite intermarried, such as the Persian official Bubares who married Amyntas' daughter, Gygaea. Family ties the Macedonian rulers Amyntas and Alexander enjoyed with Bubares ensured them good relations with the Persian kings Darius and Xerxes I. The Persian invasion led indirectly to Macedonia's rise in power and Persia had some common interests in the Balkans; with Persian aid, the Macedonians stood to gain much at the expense of some Balkan tribes such as the Paeonians and Greeks. All in all, the Macedonians were "willing and useful Persian allies. Macedonian soldiers fought against Athens and Sparta in Xerxes' army.[85] The Persians referred to both Greeks and Macedonians as Yauna ("Ionians", their term for "Greeks"), and to Macedonians specifically as Yaunã Takabara or "Greeks with hats that look like shields", possibly referring to the Macedonian kausia hat.[89]
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes I

By the 5th century BC the Kings of Persia were either ruling over or had subordinated territories encompassing not just all of the Persian Plateau and all of the territories formerly held by the Assyrian Empire (Mesopotamia, the Levant, Cyprus and Egypt), but beyond this all of Anatolia and Armenia, as well as the Southern Caucasus and parts of the North Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, all of Bulgaria, Paeonia, Thrace and Macedonia to the north and west, most of the Black Sea coastal regions, parts of Central Asia as far as the Aral Sea, the Oxus and Jaxartes to the north and north-east, the Hindu Kush and the western Indus basin (corresponding to modern Afghanistan and Pakistan) to the far east, parts of northern Arabia to the south, and parts of northern Libya to the south-west, and parts of Oman, China, and the UAE.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96]

Cyrus the Great founded the empire as a multi-state empire, governed from four capital cities: Pasargadae, Babylon, Susa and Ecbatana. The Achaemenids allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the satrapy system. A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A 'satrap' (governor) was the governor who administered the region, a 'general' supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a 'state secretary' kept the official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the satrap as well as the central government. At differing times, there were between 20 and 30 satrapies.[150]

Cyrus the Great created an organized army including the Immortals unit, consisting of 10,000 highly trained soldiers[151] Cyrus also formed an innovative postal system throughout the empire, based on several relay stations called Chapar Khaneh.[152]

Under the Achaemenids, the trade was extensive and there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities in the far reaches of the empire. Tariffs on trade were one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute.[158][162]
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353BC

The satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being the Royal Road from Susa to Sardis, built by command of Darius I. It featured stations and caravanserais at specific intervals. The relays of mounted couriers (the angarium) could reach the remotest of areas in fifteen days. Herodotus observes that "there is nothing in the world that travels faster than these Persian couriers. Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays these courageous couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds."[163] Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king", toured the empire and reported on local conditions.[citation needed]

Another highway of commerce was the Great Khorasan Road, an informal mercantile route that originated in the fertile lowlands of Mesopotamia and snaked through the Zagros highlands, through the Iranian plateau and Afghanistan into the Central Asian regions of Samarkand, Merv and Ferghana, allowing for the construction of frontier cities like Cyropolis. Following Alexander's conquests, this highway allowed for the spread of cultural syncretic fusions like Greco-Buddhism into Central Asia and China, as well as empires like the Kushan, Indo-Greek and Parthian to profit from trade between East and West. This route was greatly rehabilitated and formalized during the Abbasid Caliphate, during which it developed into a major component of the famed Silk Road.[164]

Despite its humble origins in Persis, the empire reached an enormous size under the leadership of Cyrus the Great. Cyrus created a multi-state empire where he allowed regional rulers, called the "satrap", to rule as his proxy over a certain designated area of his empire called the satrapy. The basic rule of governance was based upon loyalty and obedience of each satrapy to the central power, or the king, and compliance with tax laws.[165] Due to the ethno-cultural diversity of the subject nations under the rule of Persia, its enormous geographic size, and the constant struggle for power by regional competitors,[18] the creation of a professional army was necessary for both maintenance of the peace and to enforce the authority of the king in cases of rebellion and foreign threat.[17][151] Cyrus managed to create a strong land army, using it to advance in his campaigns in Babylonia, Lydia, and Asia Minor, which after his death was used by his son Cambyses II, in Egypt against Psamtik III. Cyrus would die battling a local Iranian insurgency in the empire, before he could have a chance to develop a naval force.[166] That task would fall to Darius the Great, who would officially give Persians their own royal navy to allow them to engage their enemies on multiple seas of this vast empire, from the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, to the Persian Gulf, Ionian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.[citation needed]

The Persian cavalry was crucial for conquering nations, and maintained its importance in the Achaemenid army to the last days of the Achaemenid Empire. The cavalry were separated into four groups. The chariot archers, horse cavalry, the camel cavalry, and the war elephants.[citation needed]
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.

In the later years of the Achaemenid Empire, the chariot archer had become merely a ceremonial part of the Persian army, yet in the early years of the Empire, their use was widespread. The chariot archers were armed with spears, bows, arrows, swords, and scale armour. The horses were also suited with scale armour similar to scale armour of the Sassanian cataphracts. The chariots would contain imperial symbols and decorations.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.

The horses used by the Achaemenids for cavalry were often suited with scale armour, like most cavalry units. The riders often had the same armour as Infantry units, wicker shields, short spears, swords or large daggers, bow and arrow and scale armour coats. The camel cavalry was different, because the camels and sometimes the riders, were provided little protection against enemies, yet when they were offered protection, they would have spears, swords, bow, arrow, and scale armour. The camel cavalry was first introduced into the Persian army by Cyrus the Great, at the Battle of Thymbra. The elephant was most likely introduced into the Persian army by Darius I after his conquest of the Indus Valley. They may have been used in Greek campaigns by Darius and Xerxes I, but Greek accounts only mention 15 of them being used at the Battle of Gaugamela.[citation needed]

Herodotus, in his mid-5th century BC account of Persian residents of the Pontus, reports that Persian youths, from their fifth year to their twentieth year, were instructed in three things—to ride a horse, to draw a bow, and to speak the Truth.[207]

He further notes that:[207]

the most disgraceful thing in the world [the Persians] think, is to tell a lie; the next worst, to owe a debt: because, among other reasons, the debtor is obliged to tell lies.[citation needed][208]

In Achaemenid Persia, the lie, druj, is considered to be a cardinal sin, and it was punishable by death in some extreme cases. Tablets discovered by archaeologists in the 1930s[209] at the site of Persepolis give us adequate evidence about the love and veneration for the culture of truth during the Achaemenian period. These tablets contain the names of ordinary Persians, mainly traders and warehouse-keepers.[210] According to Stanley Insler of Yale University, as many as 72 names of officials and petty clerks found on these tablets contain the word truth.[211] Thus, says Insler, we have Artapana, protector of truth, Artakama, lover of truth, Artamanah, truth-minded, Artafarnah, possessing splendour of truth, Artazusta, delighting in truth, Artastuna, pillar of truth, Artafrida, prospering the truth and Artahunara, having nobility of truth. It was Darius the Great who laid down the ordinance of good regulations during his reign. King Darius' testimony about his constant battle against the lie is found in cuneiform inscriptions. Carved high up in the Behistun mountain on the road to Kermanshah, Darius the Great (Darius I) testifies:[212]

I was not a lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong … According to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak or to the powerful did I do wrong. The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; who so did injury, him I punished well.[citation needed]

Darius had his hands full dealing with large-scale rebellion which broke out throughout the empire. After fighting successfully with nine traitors in a year, Darius records his battles against them for posterity and tells us how it was the lie that made them rebel against the empire. At Behistun, Darius says:

I smote them and took prisoner nine kings. One was Gaumata by name, a Magian; he lied; thus he said: I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus … One, Acina by name, an Elamite; he lied; thus he said: I am king in Elam … One, Nidintu-Bel by name, a Babylonian; he lied; thus he said: I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.[citation needed]

King Darius then tells us,

The Lie made them rebellious, so that these men deceived the people.[213]

Then advice to his son Xerxes, who is to succeed him as the great king:

Thou who shalt be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from the Lie; the man who shall be a lie-follower, him do thou punish well, if thus thou shall think. May my country be secure![citation needed]

Herodotus mentions that the Persians were invited to great birthday feasts (Herodotus, Histories 8), which would be followed by many desserts, a treat which they reproached the Greeks for omitting from their meals. He also observed that the Persians drank wine in large quantities and used it even for counsel, deliberating on important affairs when drunk, and deciding the next day, when sober, whether to act on the decision or set it aside.[221] Bowing to superiors, or royalty was one of the many Persian customs adopted by Alexander the Great.[citation needed]

Achaemenid architecture includes large cities, temples, palaces, and mausoleums such as the tomb of Cyrus the Great. The quintessential feature of Persian architecture was its eclectic nature with elements of Median, Assyrian, and Asiatic Greek all incorporated, yet maintaining a unique Persian identity seen in the finished products.[229] Its influence pervades the regions ruled by the Achaemenids, from the Mediterranean shores to India, especially with its emphasis on monumental stone-cut design and gardens subdivided by water-courses.[230]

Achaemenid art includes frieze reliefs, Metalwork such as the Oxus Treasure, decoration of palaces, glazed brick masonry, fine craftsmanship (masonry, carpentry, etc.), and gardening. Although the Persians took artists, with their styles and techniques, from all corners of their empire, they produced not simply a combination of styles, but a synthesis of a new unique Persian style.[231] Cyrus the Great in fact had an extensive ancient Iranian heritage behind him; the rich Achaemenid gold work, which inscriptions suggest may have been a speciality of the Medes, was for instance in the tradition of the delicate metalwork found in Iron Age II times at Hasanlu and still earlier at Marlik.[citation needed]

One of the most remarkable examples of both Achaemenid architecture and art is the grand palace of Persepolis, and its detailed workmanship, coupled with its grand scale. In describing the construction of his palace at Susa, Darius the Great records that:

Yaka timber was brought from Gandara and from Carmania. The gold was brought from Sardis and from Bactria … the precious stone lapis-lazuli and carnelian … was brought from Sogdiana. The turquoise from Chorasmia, the silver and ebony from Egypt, the ornamentation from Ionia, the ivory from Ethiopia and from Sindh and from Arachosia. The stone-cutters who wrought the stone, those were Ionians and Sardians. The goldsmiths were Medes and Egyptians. The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians and Egyptians. The men who wrought the baked brick, those were Babylonians. The men who adorned the wall, those were Medes and Egyptians.[citation needed]

This was imperial art on a scale the world had not seen before. Materials and artists were drawn from all corners of the empire, and thus tastes, styles, and motifs became mixed together in an eclectic art and architecture that in itself mirrored the Persian empire.[citation needed]

The legacy of the Persian garden throughout the Middle East and South Asia starts in the Achaemenid period, especially with the construction of Pasargadae by Cyrus the Great. In fact, the English word 'paradise' derives from the Greek parádeisos which ultimately comes from the Old Persian pairi-daêza, used to describe the walled gardens of ancient Persia. Distinct characteristics including flowing watercourses, fountains and water-channels, a structured orientational scheme (chahar-bagh) and a variety of flower and fruit-bearing trees brought from across the empire, all key features that served as a key inspiration for Islamic gardens ranging from Spain to India.[232][233] The famous Alhambra complex in Spain (built by Andalusian Arabs), Safavid parks and boulevards at Isfahan and Mughal gardens of India and Pakistan (including those at the Taj Mahal) are all descendants of this cultural tradition.

Engineering innovations were required to maintain Persian gardens amid the aridity and difficulty of attaining fresh water in the Iranian plateau. Persepolis was the center of an empire that reached Greece and India.,[234] was supplied with water through underground channels called qanat, allowing maintenance of its gardens and palaces. These structures consist of deep vertical shafts into water reservoirs, followed by gently-sloping channels bringing fresh water from high-altitude aquifers to valleys and lowland plains. The influence of the qanat is widespread throughout the Middle East and Central Asia (including in Xinjiang region of Western China)[235] due to its productivity and efficiency in arid environments. The acequias of southern Spain were brought by Arabs from Iraq and Persia to advance agriculture in the dry Mediterranean climate of Al-Andalus, and from there, were implemented in southwestern North America for irrigation during Spanish colonization of the Americas.[236] The American wife of an Iranian diplomat, Florence Khanum, wrote of Tehran that:

"The air is the most marvellous I ever was in, in any city. Mountain air, so sweet, dry and "preserving", delicious and life-giving.' She told of running streams, and fresh water bubbling up in the gardens. (This omnipresence of water, which doubtless spread from Persia to Baghdad and from there to Spain during its Muslim days, has given Spanish many a water-word: aljibe, for example, is Persian jub, brook; cano or pipe, is Arabic qanat—reed, canal. Thus J. T. Shipley, Dictionary of Word Origins)."

Also supplemented by the qanat are yakhchal, 'ice-pit' structures that use the rapid passage of water to aerate and cool their inner chambers.[234]

Many Achaemenid rulers built tombs for themselves. The most famous, Naqsh-e Rustam, is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km north-west of Persepolis, with the tombs of four of the kings of the dynasty carved in this mountain: Darius I, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I and Darius II. Other kings constructed their own tombs elsewhere. Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III preferred to carve their tombs beside their spring capital Persepolis, the left tomb belonging to Artaxerxes II and the right tomb belonging to Artaxerxes III, the last Achaemenid king to have a tomb. The tomb of the founder of the Achaemenid dynasty, Cyrus the Great, was built in Pasargadae (now a world heritage site).[citation needed]

In the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts, Medea is the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis and a paternal granddaughter of the sun-god Helios.[19] Following her failed marriage to Jason while in Corinth, for one of several reasons depending on the version,[20] she marries King Aegeus of Athens and bears a son Medus. After failing to make Aegeus kill his older son Theseus, she and her son fled to Aria, where the Medes take their name from her, according to several Greek and later Roman accounts, including in Pausanias' Description of Greece (1st-century AD).[21] According to other versions, such as in Strabo's Geographica (1st-century AD) and Justin's Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum (2nd or 3rd century AD), she returned home to conquer neighboring lands with her husband Jason, one of which was named after her; while another version related by Diodorus Siculus in Bibliotheca Historica (1st-century BC) states that after being exiled she married an Asian king and bore Medus, who was greatly admired for his courage, after whom they took their name.[22]

From the 10th to the late 7th centuries BC, the western parts of Media fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, which stretched from Cyprus in the west, to parts of western Iran in the east, and Egypt and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed Vassal Treaties upon the Median rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythians and Cimmerians.[39]

During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622–612 BC), the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria.

Neo-Assyrian dominance over the Medians came to an end during the reign of Median King Cyaxares, who, in alliance with King Nabopolassar of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, attacked and destroyed the strife-riven Neo-Assyrian empire between 616 and 609 BC.[40] The newfound alliance helped the Medes to capture Nineveh in 612 BC, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 609 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median Kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal capital) beyond their original homeland and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Kızılırmak River in Anatolia. After the fall of Assyria between 616 BC and 609 BC, a unified Median state was formed, which together with Babylonia, Lydia, and ancient Egypt became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East.

Cyaxares was succeeded by his son King Astyages. In 553 BC, his maternal grandson Cyrus the Great, the King of Anshan/Persia, a Median vassal, revolted against Astyages. In 550 BC, Cyrus finally won a decisive victory resulting in Astyages' capture by his own dissatisfied nobles, who promptly turned him over to the triumphant Cyrus.[41] After Cyrus's victory against Astyages, the Medes were subjected to their close kin, the Persians.[42] In the new empire they retained a prominent position; in honour and war, they stood next to the Persians; their court ceremony was adopted by the new sovereigns, who in the summer months resided in Ecbatana; and many noble Medes were employed as officials, satraps and generals.

The list of Median rulers and their period of reign is compiled according to two sources. Firstly, Herodotus who calls them "kings" and associates them with the same family. Secondly, the Babylonian Chronicle which in "Gadd's Chronicle on the Fall of Nineveh" gives its own list. A combined list stretching over 150 years is thus:

Deioces (700–647 BC)
Phraortes (647–625 BC)
Scythian rule (624–597 BC)
Cyaxares (624–585 BC)
Astyages (585–549 BC)[43]

However, not all of these dates and personalities given by Herodotus match the other near eastern sources.[43]

In Herodotus (book 1, chapters 95–130), Deioces is introduced as the founder of a centralised Median state. He had been known to the Median people as "a just and incorruptible man" and when asked by the Median people to solve their possible disputes he agreed and put forward the condition that they make him "king" and build a great city at Ecbatana as the capital of the Median state.[44] Judging from the contemporary sources of the region and disregarding[45] the account of Herodotus puts the formation of a unified Median state during the reign of Cyaxares or later.[46]

Russian historian and linguist Vladimir Minorsky suggested that the Medes, who widely inhabited the land where currently the Kurds form a majority, might have been forefathers of the modern Kurds. He also states that the Medes who invaded the region in the eighth century BC, linguistically resembled the Kurds. This view was accepted by many Kurdish nationalists in the twentieth century. However, Martin van Bruinessen, a Dutch scholar, argues against the attempt to take the Medes as ancestors of the Kurds.[65]

"Though some Kurdish intellectuals claim that their people are descended from the Medes, there is no evidence to permit such a connection across the considerable gap in time between the political dominance of the Medes and the first attestation of the Kurds" - van Bruinessen

Contemporary linguistic evidence has challenged the previously suggested view that the Kurds are descendants of the Medes.[66][67] Gernot Windfuhr, professor of Iranian Studies, identified the Kurdish languages as Parthian, albeit with a Median substratum.[68] David Neil MacKenzie, an authority on the Kurdish language, said Kurdish was closer to Persian and questioned the "traditional" view holding that Kurdish, because of its differences from Persian, should be regarded as a Northwestern Iranian language.[69] The Kurdologist and Iranologist Garnik Asatrian stated that "The Central Iranian dialects, and primarily those of the Kashan area in the first place, as well as the Azari dialects (otherwise called Southern Tati) are probably the only Iranian dialects, which can pretend to be the direct offshoots of Median… In general, the relationship between Kurdish and Median is not closer than the affinities between the latter and other North Western dialects – Baluchi, Talishi, South Caspian, Zaza, Gurani, Kurdish(Soranî, Kurmancî, Kelhorî)[70][71] Asatrian also stated that "there is no serious ground to suggest a special genetic affinity within North-Western Iranian between this ancient language [Median] and Kurdish. The latter does not share even the generally ephemeric peculiarity of Median."[72]


At the time of arrival of the Aryans and a few centuries later, massive accumulation of different ethnic groups and tribes (natives and immigrants) in the north and north-western Iran since the rise of local governments Mnna and ellipi in West Iran , which each had their own territory; And they are very much mentioned in Assyrian annals. The Mannaeans included an alliance of tribes led by the Mannai tribe. The government of Menna in the first decade of the seventh century BC. It was considered part of the great kingdom of Media . [ Citation needed ]
Buchanan glazed brick depicting a winged goat. From the Tokyo Museum of Ancient Oriental Japan 1983

Manna shared borders with the Assyrians and Urartians from the west and northwest . The northern borders of Manna probably extended to the Aras River from the east with the Medes and to the Sefidrood . From the south, it probably shared a border with Elipi and Elam. [ Citation needed ]

The capital of Mena is the fortress of Izirtu, located in the present-day city ​​of Buchan in the province of West Azerbaijan

In 719 BC , Suttle, son of Hobo and father of Delta , the last president of the Ellipse Confederation, died. [ Citation needed ] tribal chiefs decided that for three years in his homeland to undertake, after a year of mourning Talta for his father Svetliy, he headed their tribe took over and after a year, in the year 717 BC The council of the heads of the Ellipse tribes decided to change the government from a united confederation to an elected monarchy, with the exception of electing only the first king themselves and having his sons rule after him, during their negotiations with the head of the Ellipse tribe. Dalta was chosen as king. [ Citation needed ]In the spring of the following year, in 716 BC , Talta in Nysaby coronation of the Confederation of the United Tribes ellipi after 139 years the Kingdom ellipi changed. However, its two kings were the children of the same heads of the Ellipse Confederation

Diaco or Dyaakv founder and first king of the Medes had. His name is mentioned in various sources in various sources; Among them is Herodotus, who wrote his name as "Deux". The name Diako is derived from the Persian word -Dahyu-ka meaning land

The exact date of Diaco's reign is not known, and it probably covers most of the first half of the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, Diaco reigned for 53 years.

According to Herodotus, Diaco was the first Median king to gain independence from the Assyrians . He had in mind the plan to establish a unified Median government, and in an period of lawlessness in Media, he sought to administer justice in his village and gain a reputation as an impartial judge. In this way, his field of activity expanded and people from other villages came to him until he finally announced that this position was a problem for him and he was not willing to continue working. Following this withdrawal, theft and unrest increased and the Medes came together and this time elected him as king.

Diaco's first task after arriving in the kingdom was to appoint guards and build a capital. The city that Diako chose for this purpose was called Hegmataneh in ancient Persian and Ekbatan in Greek, which is known as Hamedan today. Hegmataneh means "meeting place" or "city for all" and refers to the coming together of material tribes that were previously dispersed. In the late eighth century BC, he ordered the construction of a stronghold on a hill in the city to carry out all military, government and treasury affairs.

Sargon II, king of Assyria, discovered in 715 BC that Diaco had allied himself with the first rulers , King Urartu . He monitored Diaco and re-entered Media during his war with the Manichaeans to end what he claimed was "chaos" there. He eventually captured Diako and deported him to Hamat (in present-day Syria ) with his family . After Diako, he was succeeded by his son Frortish , who ruled for 22 years

Exiled to Assyria with Diako and his family, he was probably raised in Assyria. Later, he became the center of labor in the ten states of Beit Kari [P1] in the area of present-day Hamedan . It is believed that the Assyrians deliberately appointed him to this position in order to remove him, firstly, from where he had local influence and roots, and secondly, they believed that Frortish, who was their own handmaiden - like other leaders, princes and nobles. Handcuffed kings - will continue to pursue policies that benefit the Assyrians. [2]

Although Frortish had seen the fate of his father Diako's captivity, he followed in his father's footsteps and declared war on Assyria. To do this, he first subjugated the Persians and then, with the help of the gods of the previous two neighboring states, organized an uprising against Assyria. The revolt spread rapidly and the Assyrians lost most of the Medes they had occupied. With the Assyrian negotiations with the Scythians - who were the allies of the Medes in this uprising - and their withdrawal from the alliance with the Medes in favor of the Assyrians, the course of the uprising remained unfinished.

From that date on, Frortius was able to liberate the most important areas of Media from the yoke of Assyria, and to establish a single state in the three states of Beit Kari, Madai , and Saparda, establishing an independent kingdom of Media.

During an internal conflict in Assyria, Frortisch saw an opportunity to re-invade Assyria, and in 653 BC attacked Assyria again but was killed. Thus ended his 22 years of rule over the Medes. Some historians believe that despite his defeat by the Assyrians, this war paved the way for a war that his son Hookhshtra fought until the fall of the Assyrian government. After Frortisch, he was succeeded by Hovetshtere and ruled for 40 years

Cyaxares ( Old Persian : h Uvaxstra , Akkadian : m Ú-ak-sa-tar and m Uk-sa-tar , Elamite : m Ú-ak-sa-tar , m Uk-sa-tar and m Ú-ma-ku -iš-tar , Ancient Phrygian : Ksuwaksaros , Greek : Kyaxárēs ) Third King of the MedesHe reigned in 625 BC and ruled until 4.585 BC. During the reign of Huo Khoshtra, the Medes transcended their ethnic geographical boundaries and expanded greatly, becoming the largest empire of their time, extending from the west to the Halis River ( Ghezel-Irmak ) and from the east to the Amu Darya or the Sea . Some scholars have taken his name from the ancient Persian words Hu (good) and Khashtareh (Shah), which generally means "good king". There are few sources on Hovechter's life, including Assyrian sources and Babylonian chronicles , Greek sources, especially the history of Herodotus, and scattered accounts of Jewish sources

Astyages (Akkadian: Iš-tu-me-gu , in the history of Herodotus: Styag (Astuágēs) (in Greek : Αστυαγης ), the report Ktsyas: Astuigas and Astuigas) [1] The last king of the Medes , the years 585 to 550 Preview He ruled from AD. She was the husband of the sister of Croesus , ruler of Lydia . He ruled for 35 years, about which little is known. Among Ishtovigo's actions was the invasion of the Caucasus and the war with Lydia, which eventually led to his peace treaty with the king of Lydia and his marriage to Arinis., Became the sister of Croesus. Cyrus, the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, was the son of Mandana, prince of the Medes, and the granddaughter of Astyages, king of the Medes. The 128-year rule of the Medes ended and the Achaemenid Empire was founded. Cyrus defeated the Medes, but dressed in Persian. So that many material officials had a high position in the Achaemenid rule and Med province was the second Achaemenid province after Pars province. Various accounts of Cyrus' lineage and how he fought Ishtvigo have been told by the Greeks, all of which add to the color and smell of folklore, including that he was the grandfather of Cyrus the Great

In Avesta, the word Arya is used in 6 places . "The Aryans' place" airyō. anaayana (Yasht 10 ٫ 14), contains 6 names, 4 of which are known: in eastern Iran: "yaθa tiγriš mainya-asǡ yim aŋhaṱ ərəxšō xšviwi.išuš xšviwi.išvatəmō airyanąm airyō.xsuθaṱ hača garōiṱ xᵛ anvantəm avi gairīm" = like an archer shooting sharpened Arkhashan ( Arash ) launched, on July Extremist, radical Aryans , the mountain Ayryv Khshvsh to Mount Khvnvnt . forest ( Rzvra , Razura, Yasht 15. 32), who was called vīspe.aire.razuraya, where Cui Hyvsrvv Kavi Haosravō,VAIO Vāyu killed. The fourth name Ayrynm Vyyjv (airyanəm vaēǰō, besides Zoroastrianism : Ayranvych ) frequently used in literature and texts in Sogdian Manichaean and Party Tvrfany for Erian Vyjn ('ry'n wyžn) came about. In Greek, Herodotus (7. 62) states that the material Aryvyy (Arioi) were called. The use of Areia (Latin Aria) by the Greeks for the ancient Persians, Heriwa , Heriwa Baluchi, Armenian Herio was probably confusing. [15]

The word ariya - is not found in Gahan and only appears in the parts called the Late Avesta , especially in the Yashtas . In Gahan only to encounter Ayrymn airyaman- equivalent eryaman ayamán Vedic is also famous prayer at the beginning of Reema Ayshv aryəmā išyō where " Ayrymn favorable " demand is there

According to the Aryans, the world was divided into seven parts (Pahlavi: kišvar, Sanskrit: dvīpa) and was surrounded by a distant mountain range. The inhabited area of ​​the world, that is, the place of the Aryans, where it was called Irvineh Vijeh (Iranovich) by the Iranians and Arya Varte by the Indians , was in the Middle Land. They believed that there was a very high mountain in the middle of this land. [26]

At the beginning of material creation, Tishter caused rain and flooded the earth. The land was then divided into seven parts. The middle part is the country of bloody (xwaēniraøa) and Iranovich, the land of the Iranians, is in the country of bloody. Of these seven countries, Khoniras is the largest of the six, alone. In the East worth (arəzahī), in the West Country Svh (sawahī), in the north of the country Vrvjrsh (wouru.jarštī) and Vrvbrsh (wouru.barštī) and in the south of the country Frddfsh (fradadafšu) and Vyddfsh (widadafšu) arise. According to Bandehshan, each of these seven countries is as follows: "Because the sun is up to date .Rise until the day it rises, the east is the country of Arza , from the day it rises until the day it rises, it is the region of Nimroz , it is the land of Faradafsh and Vidadfash. The West is a black country, from day to day to day. From the day of Mahast to the day of Mahast, the north is the country of Vorbarsh and Vorjarsh . When the sun rises on the land of Arzeh and Farddafsh and Widdafsh and half of Khunirs. Because of the darkness in the country Svh and Vrvbrshn and Vrvjrshn and the other half of Khvnyrs shines; When it is day, it is night, because it is because of the mountain of darkness that night is found. He went from country to country except with the permission of God and Varjavandi . "It says that there is a sea between Arzeh and Khuniras

The Aryans call their common ancient hypothetical language Indo-Iranian. The language, religion and social structure of their society in the post-migration period indicate that these tribes were originally a single people. Separation of the Aryans from other Indigenous cattle-dwelling and uninhabited tribes must begin after the mass dispersal of these tribes began in the second half of the 4th millennium BC. M occurred. Migration of Indo-European tribes between the 5th and 3rd millennium BC. They lived in the steppes of southern Russia , probably due to population growth, wealth (especially livestock), the invention of chariots and chariots, and the use of horses for riding. These tribes with the culture of Korgan from the 5th to 3rd millennia BC. M in the steppes north of the Black SeaExpanded, related. Indo-Europeans migrated in different directions and settled from India to Ireland . During the 3rd millennium to the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The Indo-Iranian or Aryan group, a branch of the Indo-Aryan people, probably continued to live together in Central Asia , approximately in the steppes of eastern Iran in ancient Sughd , Khorazm , and Balkh , and adjacent areas. Soviet archaeologists usually refer to the Indo-Iranian people in its earliest periods with the Andrano culture, whose works are found in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia.Has been found, they relate. This culture dates back to the 2nd millennium BC. Belongs to and is related to the culture of Korgan . Finally, Indians and Iranians around 2000 BC. In search of new lands with better pastures and more cattle, and perhaps due to droughts that periodically threatened the steppes of the Euro-Asian joint season that inhabited them, they gradually separated and migrated extensively from the east of the Caspian Sea and Asia. Central, either from the west by the Caucasus , or perhaps from both directions from their common homeland to the plateau of Iranthey moved. At this time, with the dispersion of the Indo-Iranians in large areas and also due to the weak economic relations between them, which reduced the relations, the difference between the ancient Persian and Indian languages, both of which originated from different dialects of the early Indo-European language. They were not enough to fully integrate the two, they gradually intensified

Kurgan (in Russian : Курган ) so tumulus is. The tomb under these kurgans is usually made of wood ; The oldest kurgans date back to the fourth millennium BC and are found in the North Caucasus and belong to the Indo - European people . Kurgan culture to a few Zyrfrhng including culture Gvralvary and yamna culture also relatives of the Scythians , Srmtyha , Huns , Koeman and Kipchak Tlqdard. The distribution of kurgans is higher from the Black Sea to Lake Baikal

Buddhists or inhabitants of the village of "Budo" located on the border between Babylon and Elam, which was founded by Tiglet III Pilser in the year - 745 BC. - He conquered. If this is true, it is the tribal headquarters on Boudiane [1] to the ends of the West Country Mud partly guides. However, it is more likely that in this case the name of the tribe is derived from the name of the village. Information about other tribes The Union of the Medes is no more

Immigrants are also called by their tribe or birthplace. For example Aylly Lian , Nakabyan , Dvnyyyan , Bylyyan , Banytyan , Sangylyan , Bvdyyyan and villages Babylonian Nergal Aiello these opacity . Among these, the Buddhists may have corresponded to the materialist Buddhist tribe .
Migration of the material by force, seventh century Nineveh
Mad and Manna in the 9th to 7th centuries BC.

Herodotus mentions six tribes of the Medes, but he may have mentioned them when the "kingdom of the Medes" was established. But the union of the Medes, which was formed before the founding of the Medes , could only be from a small ethnic group with a limited geographical area, called the Medes .

Boudiane kiss Partaknyan Astrvkhatyan Ryzantyan Magi

The tribes mentioned by Herodotus inhabited a large area of the Iranian plateau , the Parthians settled in what is now Isfahan , and the Moghans, who were considered a tribe, probably lived in the Ray or Azerbaijan region , and the Arizands are considered to be the Aryan people . Other tribes still do not have a definite place of residence; But net tribes Maday at Union Medes tribes before the establishment of the kingdom of the Medes existed, could not in range of the Iranian plateau broad

The Arizantas or Arizantians were one of the six material tribes mentioned by Herodotus . The etymology of the word is Aryan-Zanto, meaning "of Aryan descent ." The word zento has other technical uses, in the ancient Persian languageThe fourfold definition gradually became more prominent, appearing prominently in ancient Persian ancestral groups. These four groups are: Namaneh, "family"; Weiss, "Family"; Zanto, "tribe" and Dehyu, "country." Herodotus does not speak of the material tribes he mentions within the framework of this structure, but they are probably compatible with the Zanto / tribe. Zanto was probably either a large tribe whose kinship originated in the ancestral dynasty (in ancient Persian: ciça-) or was called a collection of tribes. The veracity of Herodotus' accounts of the lineage and race of the tribes is still in doubt

Mogh (plural of Moghan ) means Iranian cleric and has been of three types throughout history. Mithraic Magi, material Magi and Zoroastrian Magi. According to a tradition, they were originally a family of Medes who were in charge of religious affairs. With the coming to power of the Achaemenids, the Moghans continued to maintain religious authority, and their field of activity was no longer limited to the Medes. During the Sassanid Magi to the lowest order of ranking clergy Zoroastrianism was said

Ancient Parthenon located between two parallel mountain ranges. To the north of Kuh-e Rud , and to the south of the southern mountain ranges of Iran, which follow the Zagros Dynasty , this area is limited; And the mountains of southern West from Elam separated by deserts; and in the South East, the plateau Gulf [1] separate. In the northwestern part of this valley, Zayandehrud river flows and the city of Isfahan [2] is located on its shore. This river flows into the salt lake . Parallel to it, a little further east, beyond the mountain range of Kuh-e Rud , there is another valley where the present city of Yazd is located. This area in ancient times was often part of Persia.They counted

Unrequited attack on the Assyrians [7] The Eastern Mud three leaders point the remote at the border of salt marsh wilderness ( desert ) and Mount bacon ( Damavand ) [8] the Assyrian general appealed for help. The three were the Viceroy Avpys Partaky and Zanasi [9] Viceroy Partvky and Ramat Viceroy Kazabarna overs. [10] Although in all three cases the word residential or village appears in the text, most scholars agree that it refers to a district, not a village. Probably Partaka is the same Partacano - the texts of Sargon II , Partakna - the current district of Isfahan

The Asagartiya (Ancient Persian: Asagartiya ) were a tribe of ancient Persian peoples living on the plateau of Iran .
The Sagarites in the Achaemenid Empire
A Sagarati in Apadana

Their exact location is unknown, but they probably lived in the Parthian neighborhood in northeastern Iran . Herodotus (1. 125, 7.85) mentions them as related to the Persians . It is possible that the Sagarites were politically allied with the Medes at some point in time

Ptolemy Arians to the inhabitants of Median (northwest Iran ) knows Stefanos settlement them like an island in the Caspian Sea called Sagartya remembers. The Sagarites were nomadic herdsmen and their main weapon was the bow . [2]

According to Herodotus (3.93), the Sagarti belonged to the fourteenth satrap of the Achaemenid Empire . A Sagarti gift-giving board can be seen on the Apadana paintings . Herodotus also mentions in his writings [3] the same material tribe of the nomads called "Sagarti" and writes

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